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Flower and Fruit Features


General Flower Features

Arrangement of flowers

The position of the inflorescence on the vegetative axis. It is recorded as either:

terminal at end of branchlets(axes) axillary arising from between a leaf and a branchlet (axis)
flowers terminal flowers axillary
leaf-opposed arising opposite a leaf, not between a leaf and a branchlet (axis), this character state includes inflorescences that are laterally on branches behind (below) a leaf on the trunk or branches (cauliflorous or ramiflorous), no distinction is made between cauliflorous and ramiflorous because species which have flowers arising directly from the trunk (cauliflorous) often also have at least some flowers arising directly from the branches (ramiflorous)
flowers leaf-opposed flowers on trunk or branches

Arrangement of flowers, axis structure

The absence or presence of an inflorescence (flowering) axis recorded by this character.
The inflorescence is described as consisting of either:

Flowers arising from a single point

Either as:
flowers single
(solitary), only one flower present in each inflorescence
more than one flower present in each inflorescence
which arises from either the branch, stem or trunk of the tree
single flower many-flowered inflorescences

Flowers arranged along an axis

Either as:
flowers on an unbranched axis flowers on a branched axis
flowers on unbranched axis (raceme) flowers on a branched axis

Flowering cones/strobili presence

flowering female cones/strobili The flowers of Conifers are arranged in flowering strobili (strobilus, singular) often generally referred to as ‘cones’.
This character generally record the absence (dicotyledonous plants) or presence (Conifers) of strobili, However, the Podocarpaceae (as illustrated here) is a dicotyledon which has female flowers arranged in strobili.

This feature is recorded , as either:
absent, or
present

Flowers sexuality

The flowers are either described as:
unisexual
with flowers either male or female
bisexual
with both androecium (stamens) and gynoecium (ovary, with or without style, with stigma)
illustration: T. Djarwaningsih bisexual flower

Flowers unisexual position

When the flowers are unisexual, this character records whether these flowers occur on the same plant (hence, plant monoecious) or male occur on one plant and the female flowers occur on a separate plant (hence, plant dioecious).

Therefore, the plants are recorded as either:
with male and female flowers on the same plant (monoecious)
with male and female flowers on different plants (dioecious)

Flowers stalked

The flowers are directly attached to the axis of the inflorescence or they occur on a short to long stalk.
The flowers are recorded as either:
not stalked(sessile) stalked(pedicellate)
flowers sessile flowers pedicellate

Flowers symmetry

The shape of flowers varies considerably between species and this variation is often reflected in the number of planes of symmetry within the flower. Architecturally, they may be regular, with many planes of symmetry to very irregular.
The symmetry of flowers is described as:
with many planes of symmetry (actinomorphic)slightly asymmetric with one plane of symmetry (zygomorphic)completely asymmetric
flowers with many planes of symmetry flowers flowers very asymmetric

Flowers length (mm)

The length of the flower is measured in millimetres (mm) from the base of the perianth (from the distal end of the pedicel (stalk) if flower pedicellate) to the end of the perianth (sepals and/or petals). Note: often the style and stigma are distinctly exerted far beyond the perianth. These features are not included in this measurement.

Flowers diameter (mm)

The diameter of the flower is classified according to:
small (< or =10 mm diam.), or
large (>10 mm diam.)

Perianth

Perianth presence

The absence or presence of a perianth in the flowers is recorded as either:
absent, or
present
Note: this feature is not concerned about the number of distinct whorls of perianth. There may be both sepals and petals present or just one of these whorls.

Perianth type

The perianth of the flowers is recorded as:
with distinct speals and petals whorls integrating from sepals to petals with all sepals and/or petals (hence tepals) similar
sepals with brown hairs; petals white with torn margin distally; anthers slender and brown intergrading from sepals to petals with all sepals and/or petals similar

Perianth colour

The colour of the perianth which is closest to the stamens and/or ovary, usually regarded as the corolla (petals), or if only one perianth whorl, then this character refers to the colour of that whorl, which is recorded as:
white
yellow
orange
pink
red
blue
purple
mauve
green
brown
grey
cream-coloured
Note: often several colours are present. The inner perianth may consist of more than one colour and these colours should be recorded. However, the various hue/shades of colour are not recorded, but rather the basic colour types list above should only be used.

Inner perianth parts

The number of parts of the inner perianth, whether free (not joined) or variously joined to each other. The value ‘100’ is arbitrarily assigned when there are many perianth parts.

Inner perianth parts, extent of fusion

The extent of fusion/joining of the parts of the inner perianth (usually the corolla or petals) or the only perianth whorl to the other parts of the whorl.
This is recorded as:
free - when all the parts of the perianth are not united to each othersome or partly joined - when at least some parts of the perianth are joined togetherall joined - all of the parts of the perianth are joined together such that there is a corolla tube with corolla lobes absent or greatly reduced and so not obvious
perianth parts free (not joined) perianth partly joined perianth parts all joined

Stamens

Stamens number

The number of stamens, whether free (not joined) or variously joined to each other.
The value ‘100’ is arbitrarily assigned when there are many stamens flowers with many free stamens

Stamens filaments

This feature records the absence of staminal filaments, such that the anthers are sessile, or presence of staminal filaments.
The staminal filaments are either:
absent present
stamen sessile (filament absent) stamen with anther attached to a filament

Stamens freedom

The extent of fusion/joining of each of the stamens together.
This is recorded as either:
free from each other joined
(connate), at least in part
stamens free (separate) from each other stamens joined to each other towards their bases to form a staminal tube. Note: petals have fallen off, only green sepals and style remaining with stamens

Stamens joined to perianth

The extent of fusion/joining of each stamen to the perianth (adnation), either to the petals (epipetalous) and sepals (episepalous).
The stamens are either:
free of the perianth
stamens not joined to the perianth
joined to the perianth
(epipetalous/episepalous)

Gynoecium

Ovary (gynoecium) position

This feature records the position of the ovary with respect to the point of insertion of the petals and/or sepals.
The ovary is recorded as:
superior - ovary seated above petals and sepals (hypogenous) partly inferior (perigenous) inferior - ovary seated below petals and sepals (epigenous)
Superior Ovary Partly Inferior Ovary Inferior Ovary

Carpels (gynoecium) constitution

The gynoecium consists of one or more carpels which are variously joined/fused or not united together.

This character records the presence of one carpel:


solitary (monomerous) - the ovary consisting of a single carpel ovary consisting of a single carpel and single locule

OR,
This character records the extent of fusion when there is more than one carpel as:

separate (when more than one - apocarpous), each carpel completely free from the other carpels joined (when more than one carpel - syncarpous), all carpels completely joined together
carpels separate carpels joined completely (left - 2 fused carpels; right - 3 fused carpels)
partially joined, by base - the distal parts of the carpels are free from each other, not united, and the styles are also separate partially joined by styles - the basal parts of the carpels are free from each other, not united, but are joined together by their styles
carpels partially joined at base carpels partically joined by style, not united at base

Locules number

ovaries with 1, 2 & 3 locules The number of locules (chambers that contain the ovules) of the gynoecium
(The illustration shows 1, 2 and 3 locules, respectively)

Styles presence

The gynoecium consists of an ovary and one or more stigmas. The stigma(s) are inserted on the end of a style or the style is absent. This feature records the absence or presence of one or more styles.
The style is recorded as:
absent solitary
(including joined together)
free
(more than one style, entirely free from each other)
flower with solitary (single) style terminating in a stigmaflower with solitary style

Styles number

This character records the number of styles when there is more than one present

Fruits

Arrangement of fruits axis

The absence or presence of an infructescence (fruiting) axis recorded by this character.

The infructescence is described as consisting of either:

fruits arising from a single point, either as:

fruits single
(solitary), only one flower present in each infructescence
fruits arising from a single point
but with more than one fruit present in each infructescence, which arises from either the branch, stem or trunk of the tree
single fruit several fruits arising from a single pointseveral fruits arising from a single point

fruits arranged along an axis, either as:

fruits on an unbranched axis fruits on a branched axis
fruits on unbranched axis/infrutescence fruits on branched axis/infrutescence

Fruit length (mm)

The length of the fruit, in Dicotyledonous plants, measured in millimetres (mm) along the longest axis

Fruit colour

When the plant is a dicotyledon, the colour of the mature fruit is recorded as:
white
cream-coloured
yellow
green
blue
orange
red
brown
grey
black
purple

Fruit spiny

This feature records the absence or presence of spines on the surface of the fruit (in dicotyledons) as either:
spiny fruit not spiny, or
spiny

Fruit fleshy

The mature fruits of dicotyledons are either:
non-fleshy fleshy
fruit non-fleshy fruit fleshy

Fruit structure

The mature fruits of dicotyledons are:
simple - a fruit which is derived from a single flower flower that has a single carpel or several fused carpels aggregrate - a fruit that has developed from several separate carpels of one flower
simple fruitsimple fruit aggregate fruit
multiple (excluding figs) - a fruit which is consists of the carpels from several flowers in an inflorescence/infrutescence syconium (fig) - the 'fig' is a specific example of a multiple fruit where the individual achenes (dry, one-seeded, indehiscent fruits) are borne on the inside of a hollowed-out receptacle or peduncle
multiple fruitmultiple fruit syconium (fig) - sectional view

Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent

The mature fruits of dicotyledons open in a set way (dehiscent) to release their seeds or they do not open on maturity (indehiscent).
Therefore, the fruits are recorded as:
indehiscent dehiscent
indehiscent dehiscent capsule

Fruit dehiscence type

When the fruits of dicotyledons are dehiscent, the fruit is described as:
capsule - a simple, dry fruit that opens in a definite way, consisting of two or more carpels follicle - a simple, dry, dehiscent fruit with one carpel that opens along one side of the fruit
capsule follicle
legume - a simple, dry, dehiscent fruit with one carpel that opens along two sides of the fruit loment - a special type of legume that separates transversely between seed sections
legume loment

Fruit indehiscence type

When the fruits of dicotyledons are indehiscent, the fruit is described as:
achene - a simple, dry, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit that has developed from a flower with a superior ovary berry - a simple, indehiscent, more or less juicy/fleshy, few- to many-seeded fruit, with a fleshy fruit wall (pericarp)
achene berry
drupe - a simple, indehiscent, more or less fleshy fruit that is derived from a single carpel, usually one-seeded, in which the exocarp (outermost part of pericarp) is thin, the mesocarp (middle layer of pericarp) is fleshy, and the endocarp (innermost layer of pericarp) is stony hesperidium - a special type of berry that has a thick shin, is septate, and with the bulk of the fruit derived from glandular hairs
drupe hesperidium
nut - a simple, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit with a hard fruit wall (pericarp), usually derived from a one-loculed ovary, as in the Rutaceae pepo - a special type of berry that has a leathery, non-septate rind (pericarp) derived from a flower with an inferior ovary
nut pepo
pome - a simple, indehiscent, fleshy fruit, the outer part of which is formed by the floral parts that surround the ovary. This special type of simple fruit is often referred to as an Accessory fruit samara - a simple, dry, indehiscent, one- or two-seeded fruit with the pericarp bearing a wing-like outgrowth
pome samara
schizocarp - a fruit with two or more united carpels that split apart at maturity syconium - sometimes the 'fig' is incorrectly referred to as if it were a simple fruit rather than a special type of multiple fruit. The individual fruits within the fig are achenes.
schizocarp syconium (fig)

Cones

Cones presence

The seeds of Conifers are arranged in usually woody fruiting strobili (strobilus, singular), referred to a cones.

This character records the absence (dicotyledonous plants) or presence (conifers) of cones (strobili), as either:
absent, or
present
Fruiting Cones

Cones length (mm)

The length of the cone, in Conifers, measured in millimetres (mm) along the longest axis

Cones diameter (mm)

When the plant is a conifer, the diameter at the widest part of the mature cone, measured in millimetres (mm)

Cones colour

When the plant is a conifer, the colour of the mature cone is either:
green
brown

Seeds

Seeds number per fruit

The number of seeds produced by each fruit is recorded. The value ‘100’ is arbitrarily assigned when there are many seeds

Seeds size length (mm)

The size of the seeds, in millimetres (mm), is measured along the longest axis

Seeds wings

This feature records the presence or absence of one or more wing appendage on the surface of the seed.
not winged winged
Seeds without wings Seeds winged

Seed shape

The shape of the seed, at least in cross-section, is recorded as:
irregular broad (as wide as long) narrow (longer than wide)
Seeds irregular Seeds broad Seeds narrow

Seed size diameter/width (mm)

This feature records the maximum diameter or width of the flattened seeds, in millimetres (mm). When one or more wings are present, these are excluded from the measurement of the seed.
The seed size is categorised as:
< 1 mm diam. - less than 1 mm diameter
1-10 mm diam.
>10 mm diam.
- greater than 10 mm diameter
Note: the range of values for the diameter (mm) of seeds for some species has also been provided

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