PNGTrees

 

Barry Conn (NSW) & Kipiro Damas (LAE).
Guide to trees of Papua New Guinea
Copyright held by the authors, National Herbarium of New South Wales, and Papua New Guinea National Herbarium


Go to: Literature    Habit    Field Characters    Habit    Indumentum    Leaves    Flowers    Fruits    Administration    Distribution    Administration    Notes    (Return to the index of all items of the project)


Taxon name:


Literature   [back to top]


1. Protologue <journal/book title>


2. Protologue <volume/part>


3. Protologue <page>
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4. Protologue<year>
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5. Protologue <figure>
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6. Literature1 <author(s)>


7. Literature1 <journal/book title>


8. Literature1 <volume/part>    Other (enter as text): 
9. Literature1 <page>
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10. Literature1 <year>
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11. Literature1 <figure>
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12. Family     1. Anacardiaceae     2. Annonaceae     3. Apocynaceae     4. Aquifoliaceae     5. Araliaceae     6. Araucariaceae     7. Asteraceae     8. Atherospermataceae     9. Bombaceae     10. Boraginaceae     11. Burseraceae     12. Cannabaceae     13. Casuarinaceae     14. Celastraceae     15. Chloranthaceae     16. Chrysobalanaceae     17. Clusiaceae     18. Combretaceae     19. Cornaceae     20. Cunoniaceae     21. Cupressaceae     22. Datiscaceae     23. Dilleniaceae     24. Dipterocarpaceae     25. Ebenaceae     26. Elaeocarpaceae     27. Erythroxylaceae     28. Euphorbiaceae     29. Fabaceae     30. Fagaceae     31. Flacourtiaceae     32. Gentianaceae     33. Gnetaceae     34. Hamamelidaceae     35. Hernandiaceae     36. Himantandraceae     37. Icacinaceae     38. Juglandaceae     39. Lamiaceae     40. Lauraceae     41. Lecythidaceae     42. Loganiaceae     43. Lythraceae     44. Magnoliaceae     45. Malvaceae     46. Melastomataceae     47. Meliaceae     48. Monimiaceae     49. Moraceae     50. Myristicaceae     51. Myrsinaceae     52. Myrtaceae     53. Nothofagaceae     54. Nyctaginaceae     55. Nyssaceae     56. Ochnaceae     57. Oleaceae     58. Pandaceae     59. Pentaphylaceae     60. Phyllanthaceae     61. Pinaceae     62. Piperaceae     63. Pittosporaceae     64. Podocarpaceae     65. Polygalaceae     66. Proteaceae     67. Putranjivaceae     68. Quintiniaceae     69. Rhamnaceae     70. Rhizophoraceae     71. Rosaceae     72. Rubiaceae     73. Rutaceae     74. Sabiaceae     75. Salicaceae     76. Sapindaceae     77. Sapotaceae     78. Saurauiaceae     79. Saxifragaceae     80. Simaroubaceae     81. Sphenostemonaceae     82. Staphyleaceae     83. Sterculiaceae     84. Symplocaceae     85. Tetramelaceae     86. Theaceae     87. Thymelaeaceae     88. Tiliaceae     89. Trimeniaceae     90. Ulmaceae     91. Urticaceae     92. Verbenaceae     93. Winteraceae     94. Xanthophyllaceae     95. not applicable     96. unknown     97. variable
13. Group     1. Conifer     2. Dicotyledon
14. Timber tree <yes/no>     1. yes     2. no
15. Timber groups <hardwoods, or not>     1. major exportable hardwoods     2. commercial hardwoods     3. minor hardwoods     4. softwoods     5. plantation species     6. occasional timber
16. Tradename <forestry/timber name>


Habit   [back to top]


17. Habit     1. emergent trees     2. large trees (those making up the canopy of the forest)     3. small trees (sub-canopy sized trees)
18. Trunk <bole shape in section>     1. cylindrical     2. markedly fluted
19. Trunk <bole shape straight, or not>     1. crooked     2. straight
20. Buttresses <present/absent>     1. present     2. absent     U. unknown
21. Spines <present/absent>     1. present     2. absent
22. Spines <location>     1. on trunk     2. on branches
23. Aerial roots <present/absent>     1. present     2. absent
24. Stilt roots <present/absent>     1. present     2. absent

Field Characters   [back to top]


25. Bark <outer - colour use only for trees greater than 50 cm dbh>     1. white     2. cream-coloured     3. yellow     4. green     5. orange     6. red    ()  7. grey     8. brown     9. black     10. purplish

Habit   [back to top]


26. Bark <continuity-rough or smooth>    ()  1. rough     2. smooth
27. Bark <texture>     1. scaly or flaky     2. fissured     3. peeling     4. cracked     5. furrowed cork    ()  6. pustular     7. tessellated     8. pitted
28. Bark lenticels (pustules) <shape>     1. elongated laterally     2. elongated vertically     3. rounded/swelling     4. irregular
29. Bark subrhytidome <colour>     1. white     2. yellow     3. orange     4. green     5. pink     6. red     7. brown     8. black     9. purple     10. mottled     11. grey
30. Bark <thickness (mm)>     1. <25 mm thick     2. >25 mm thick
31. Bark <thickness measurement (mm)>
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32. Bark blaze <layering>     1. one layer     2. two layers <inner & outer>
33. Bark blaze <aromatic or not - use only for trees greater than 50 cm dbh>     1. faintly to non-aromatic     2. strongly aromatic
34. Bark blaze <aromatic type>     1. unpleasant     2. onion-like     3. cinnamon-like     4. resinous/linament-like     5. spice-like     6. pleasant     7. pine-like     8. almond-like
35. Bark outer blaze <colour>     1. white     2. yellow     3. orange     4. pink     5. red     6. brown     7. black     8. green     9. mixed colours     10. grey     11. purple
36. Bark outer blaze <markings or not>     1. markings absent     2. speckled     3. with stripes
37. Bark outer blaze <texture>     1. smooth     2. fibrous     3. granular with splinters     4. granular without splinters     5. corky
38. Bark inner blaze <colour>     1. white     2. yellow     3. orange     4. pink     5. red     6. brown     7. green     8. mixed colours     9. grey     10. purple
39. Bark inner blaze <markings or not>     1. markings absent     2. speckled     3. with stripes
40. Bark inner blaze <texture>     1. smooth     2. fibrous     3. granular with splinters     4. granular without splinters     5. corky
41. Bark exudate (sap) <present or absent>     1. present     2. absent
42. Bark exudate (sap) <colour>     1. white/milky     2. yellow     3. red     4. brown     5. colourless     6. green     7. blue     8. orange
43. Bark exudate (sap) <abundant or not>     1. flowing     2. not readily flowing (spotty)
44. Bark exudate (sap) <changing colour on exposure to air, or not>     1. colour changing on exposure to air     2. colour not changing on exposure to air
45. Bark exudate (sap) colour <when changed after exposure to air>     1. grey     2. orange     3. brown     4. black     5. golden-coloured     6. red     7. green     8. purple     9. yellow
46. Bark exudate (sap) <sticky or not>     1. not sticky     2. sticky
47. Terminal buds <enclosed by leaves or not>     1. enclosed by leaves     2. not enclosed by leaves

Indumentum   [back to top]


48. Complex hairs <need 10X lens - present or absent>     1. present     2. absent
49. Complex hairs <need 10X lens - type>     1. disk-shaped (peltate)     2. star-like (stellate)     3. T-shaped     4. club-shaped (clavate)     5. head-like (capitate)     6. awl-like
50. Stinging hairs <urticating hairs>     1. present     2. absent
51. Mature twig indumentum (hairs) <present or absent>    ()  1. present    ()  2. absent     V. variable
52. Mature twig indumentum (hairs) <density>     1. dense ()     2. sparse     U. unknown

Leaves   [back to top]


53. Leaves <position on branchlet>     1. clustered at end of branches <internodes indistinct>     2. spaced along branches <internodes readily visible>
54. Leaves <insertion/arrangement>     1. opposite (in pairs, opposite one another on the branchlet)     2. whorled (with more than two leaves at one node of a branchlet)     3. spiral (leaves occurring singly at a node and arranged spirally up the branchlet)
55. Leaves <per whorl>
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56. Leaves <simple or compound>     1. simple (a leaf composed of a single blade)     2. compound (a leaf made up from two or more leaflets)
57. Petiole <present or absent>     1. absent     2. present
58. Petiole <winged or not>     1. not winged     2. winged
59. Petiole <attachment to blade>     1. attached to surface of leaf blade <peltate>     2. attached to base of leaf blade <not peltate>
60. Petiole <swollen at either end, or not>     1. not swollen     2. swollen <at tip, or base, or both>
61. Leaves <lamina shape type>     1. broadest above middle     2. broadest at or near middle     3. broadest below middle     4. equally broad throughout much of length     5. rounded
62. Leaves <lamina length (cm)>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
cm

63. Leaves <lamina width (cm)>
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cm

64. Leaves <symmetry at base>     1. very asymmetric     2. symmetric
65. Leaves <margin toothed, or not>     1. entire     2. crenate     3. serrate to dentate (toothed)
66. Leaves <dissected/lobed, or not>     1. dissected or lobed     2. not dissected or lobed
67. Leaves <dissection type>     1. pinnately lobed     2. palmately lobed
68. Leaves <shape of apex>     1. emarginate or retuse    ()  2. rounded     3. obtuse    ()  4. acute     5. mucronate    ()  6. acuminate     7. long-tapering
69. Leaves <compound leaf form>     1. with one leaflet     2. with two leaflets     3. with three leaflets (trifoliate)     4. pinnate (unbranched with more than three leaflets)     5. bipinnate (with the rachis branched once)     6. multiply compound (a compound leaf with more than two orders of branching before leaflets are formed)     7. palmate (with more than three leaflets attached at one point to the stalk)
70. Petiolule <of leaflet, swollen or not at either end>     1. not swollen     2. swollen <at tip, or base, or both>
71. Rachis <present/absent>     1. absent     2. present
72. Rachis <winged or not>     1. absent     2. present
73. Rachis <swollen at either end, or not>     1. absent     2. present
74. Leaves <when compound - paripinnate or imparipinnate>     1. without a terminal leaflet (the number of leaflets even - paripinnate)     2. with a terminal leaflet (the number of leaflets odd - imparipinnate)
75. Leaves <when compound - leaflet lamina shape type>     1. broadest above middle     2. broadest at or near middle     3. broadest below middle     4. equally broad throughout much of length
76. Leaves <when compound - leaflet lamina length (cm)>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
cm

77. Leaves <when compound - leaflet lamina width (cm)>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
cm

78. Leaves <when compound - leaflets opposite or alternate>     1. leaflets opposite     2. leaflets alternate     3. leaflets arranged from one point
79. Leaves <when compound - leaflet symmetry, at base>     1. asymmetric     2. symmetric
80. Leaves <when compound - imparipinnate, terminal leaflet buds>     1. terminal developing leaflet buds curled back on itself     2. terminal developing leaflet buds straight     3. terminal developing leaflet buds absent
81. Venation <layout of secondary veins on leaf/leaflet>     1. single-veined <the leaf or leaflet with only one vein>     2. pinnate <secondary veins arising from the midrib along its length>     3. trinerved <three large veins arising from the base>     4. palmate <more than three large veins arising from the base>     5. parallel-veined <numerous small veins running in parallel from base, not arising from a midrib>     U. unknown
82. Secondary veins <closed or open>     1. open <spaced far apart to easily see tertiary veins>     2. closed <spaced so close together that tertiary veins cannot be easily seen between them>     U. unknown
83. Secondary veins <prominence>     1. prominent     2. not prominent, but visible     3. not visible
84. Intramarginal veins <present/absent>     1. absent     2. present
85. Leaves lower surface <colour>     1. blue-green     2. pale green     3. green     4. dark green     5. yellow     6. brown     7. red     8. grey     9. white     10. golden
86. Leaves upper surface <colour>     1. blue-green     2. pale green     3. green     4. dark green     5. yellow     6. brown     7. red     8. grey
87. Leaves indumentum (hairs) <present/absent - on mature leaf or leaflet>    ()  1. absent    ()  2. present
88. Leaves indumentum (hairs) <indumentum density - on mature leaf or leaflet>     1. dense    ()  2. sparse
89. Leaves <gland-dotted or not, often pellucid, apparent as numerous semi-transparent dots distributed across the leaf>     1. absent     2. present
90. Domatia <present/absent>     1. absent     2. present
91. Domatia <distribution>     1. scattered along midrib     2. scattered across lamina
92. Stipules <or stipular scars present or absent>     1. absent     2. present
93. Stipules <freedom>     1. free <from one another>     2. joined
94. Stipules <type - interpetiolar or lateral>     1. joined across twigs <growing between opposite leaves and leaving a scar between them when they fall; interpetiolar>     2. laterally placed <whether free or joined>
95. Stipules <encircling the twig, or not>     1. encircling the twig <amplexicaul>     2. not encircling the twig
96. Stipules <form>     1. scale-like     2. collar-like     3. hair-like     4. leafy     5. spiny     6. represented by glands
97. Stipules <margin with fine hairs/fringed, or not>     1. fringed <fimbriate>     2. not fringed
98. Stipules <size>     1. large <easily visible to the eye>     2. small <not easily visible to the eye>
99. Stipules <persistence>     1. not persistent     2. persistent

Flowers   [back to top]


100. Arrangement of flowers <position>     1. terminal <at branch ends>     2. axillary <from between a leaf and branch>     3. leaf-opposed <arising opposite a leaf, not between a leaf and a branch>     4. on the trunk or branches <cauliflorous-ramiflorous>
101. Arrangement of flowers <axis absent, unbranched or branched?>     1. flowers single <solitary>     2. flowers arising from a single point     3. flowers on an unbranched axis     4. flowers on a branched axis
102. Arrangement of flowers <cones/strobili present, or not>     1. absent     2. present
103. Flower sexuality <bisexual or unisexual>     1. unisexual     2. bisexual     U. unknown
104. Flowers unisexual <male and female flowers - on the same, or different, plants>     1. with male and female flowers on the same plant <monoecious>     2. with male and female flowers on different plants <dioecious>     U. unknown
105. Flowers <stalked or not>     1. not stalked <sessile>     2. stalked <pedicellate>
106. Flowers <symmetry>     1. with many planes of symmetry <actinomorphic>     2. slightly asymmetric     3. with one plane of symmetry <zygomorphic>     4. completely asymmetric     U. unknown
107. Flowers <size length (mm)>     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
    ()    
mm

108. Flowers <size diameter (mm)>     1. small (< or =10 mm diam.)     2. large (>10 mm diam.)     U. unknown
109. Perianth <present or absent>     1. absent     2. present     U. unknown
110. Perianth <type>     1. with distinct sepals and petals whorls     2. intergrading from sepals to petals     3. with all sepals and/or petals (hence tepals) similar     4. petals absent     U. unknown
111. Perianth <colour, always inner most parts - next to stamens & ovary>     1. white ()     2. yellow     3. orange     4. pink     5. red     6. blue     7. purple     8. mauve     9. green     10. brown     11. grey     12. cream-coloured     U. unknown
112. Inner perianth parts <number visible, whether free or joined - if many then score as "100">     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max:

113. Inner perianth parts <extent of joining>     1. free     2. some or partly joined     3. all joined     U. unknown
114. Stamens <number if there are a lot, enter "100">     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max:

115. Stamens <filaments present or absent>     1. absent     2. present     U. unknown
116. Stamens <whether at least some are joined to each other or not>     1. free of each other     2. joined <connate>     U. unknown
117. Stamens <adnate to perianth, or not>     1. free of the perianth     2. joined to the perianth <epipetalous/episepalous>     U. unknown
118. Ovary <gynoecium, position>     1. superior <seated above petals and sepals; hypogenous>     2. partly inferior <perigenous>     3. inferior <seated below the petals and sepals; epigenous>
119. Carpels <gynoecium, constitution>     1. solitary <monomerous>     2. separate (when more than one) <apocarpous>     3. joined (when more than one) <syncarpous>     4. partially joined, by base     5. partially joined, by styles
120. Locules <number>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max:

121. Styles <absent, single, or many and free>     1. absent     2. solitary <including joined together>     3. free <more than one style, entirely free from each other>     U. unknown
122. Styles <number of styles - if there are more than one>     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max:

Fruits   [back to top]


123. Arrangement of fruits <axis absent, unbranched or branched?>     1. fruits single <solitary>     2. fruits arising from single point     3. fruits arranged on unbranched axis     4. fruits arranged on branched axis
124. Arrangement of fruits < cones present, or not>     1. absent     2. present
125. Fruit <size length (mm)>     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
    ()    
mm

126. Fruit <size diameter (mm)>     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
mm

127. Cone <size length (mm)>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
mm

128. Cone <size diameter (mm)>
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
mm

129. Cone <colour>     1. green     2. brown     3. red     4. orange     5. black     6. blue
130. Fruit <colour>     1. white     2. cream-coloured     3. yellow     4. green    ()  5. blue     6. orange     7. red     8. brown     9. grey     10. black     11. purple     U. unknown
131. Fruit <surface spiny or not>     1. not spiny     2. spiny
132. Fruit <fleshy or not>     1. non-fleshy     2. fleshy
133. Fruit <simple, aggregate or multiple>     1. simple     2. aggregate     3. multiple <excluding figs>     4. syconium (fig) <specific example of multiple>
134. Fruit <dehiscent or indehiscent>     1. indehiscent    ()  2. dehiscent
135. Fruit dehiscence <type>     1. capsule     2. follicle     3. legume     4. loment
136. Fruit indehiscence <type>     1. achene     2. berry     3. drupe     4. hesperidium     5. nut     6. pepo     7. pome     8. samara     9. schizocarp     10. syconium (fig)     11. naked seed only
137. Seeds <number per fruit. If many, then "100">     U. unknown
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max:

138. Seeds <size length (mm)>     1. barely visible (to 1 mm long)     2. to about 5 mm long     3. about 10 mm long     4. much more than 10 mm long     5. 100 mm long or much longer     U. unknown
139. Seeds < winged or not>     1. not winged     2. winged
140. Seed <shape, at least in section>     1. irregular     2. broad (as wide as long)     3. narrow (longer than wide)
141. Seed <size diameter/width (mm)>     1. < 1 mm diam.     2. 1-10 mm diam.     3. >10 mm diam.     U. unknown

Administration   [back to top]


142. Description <completed or not>     1. complete     2. partially complete     3. not started

Distribution   [back to top]


143. Distribution <Province>     1. West Sepik     2. East Sepik     3. Madang     4. Morobe     5. Western Highlands     6. Eastern Highlands     7. Southern Highlands     8. Western     9. Gulf     10. Central     11. Northern     12. Milne Bay     13. Papuan Islands     14. New Britain     15. New Ireland     16. Manus     17. Bougainville

Administration   [back to top]


144. Reference collections <vouchers for key project>


145. Images <present, or not>     1. bark     2. blaze     3. fruit     4. illustration     5. leaves     6. no images     7. flowers     8. specimen
146. Images <file names>


Notes   [back to top]


147. Notes


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